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Currently, the electrochemical storage systems are widely used in different components and applications as they allow operating somewhat separate from the network. Batteries can use different types of chemistry, formats or features, but in general they must all be supervised during charge, discharge and storage to guarantee that they are operating in the defined working range, controlling temperature, voltage, current, etc. Thus, this type of storage requires electronic circuits developed specifically to control and manage the good use of the cells, as well as to maximize their cyclability. In this way, cell maintenance cost is reduced and the available years to do the amortization of the cell is increased.


To achieve a redundant control and increase pack security, 3 electronic levels have been designed that represent the different control points. 

BMS is on the first level and it is responsible of reading and adapting the data received from the sensors. It can read voltage, temperatures and internal resistance, and it balances the cells to maximize the battery's useful life and determine possible cell faults. 


The String Controller Unit (SCU) reads the information received from the BMS and processes it to predict problems and adapt the pack's parameters to future needs. It is possible to detect possible faults or inconsistencies in the string, determine its state, read the instant current, detect the voltage level, isolation, relay status... Additionally, it includes a predictive-adaptive algorithm that calculates the status of charge (SOC), the status of health (SOH) and the status of life (SOL).

The BCU controls the pack. This card is responsible of guaranteeing the security of the pack and of the components that are connected to the continuous current bus. Among other actions, it controls main relays, it detects the isolation level and the HVIL status. It has an algorithm that allows predicting faults, so that the pack is capable of adapting to the needs of each moment, reducing the fault's incidence. 


The battery's work mode is defined in this card. It is thus responsible of controlling the amount of current that goes in or out of the complete pack. It also defines the charge, discharge and balancing algorithms to adjust to the needs of each project independently.


The BCU has redundant systems that increase the reliability, obtaining data through independent routes to guarantee that, in case of an incidence, the pack can keep operating with different degrees of fall-back.